Acute myeloid leukemia (AML)



Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an oncological disease in which the spinal cord produces abnormal myeloblastic cells (the type of leukocyte cells), erythrocytes or platelets.

Acute myeloid leukemia occurs in people of all ages, but mostly in adults. The likelihood of developing acute myeloid leukemia increases in the event of exposure to large doses of radiation and the use of certain chemotherapy agents for a malignant tumor.

Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)



Acute lymphocytic (lymphoblastic) leukemia is a life-threatening disease in which cells normally developing in lymphocytes become malignant and quickly replace normal cells in the bone marrow.

Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) occurs in patients of any age, but it is the most common type of children’s oncological disease and accounts for 25% of all cases of under 15 years old children’s cancer. ALL is the most commonly affected by young children (2 to 5 years). Among middle-aged people, this disease occurs a little more frequently than in patients older than 45 years.

With ALL, very immature leukemic cells accumulate in the bone marrow, destroying and replacing cells that produce normal blood cells. Leukemia cells are transported with blood to a liver, spleen, lymph nodes, brain and testes, where they can continue growing and divide. In this case, ALL cells can accumulate in any part of a body. They can affect the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, causing inflammation (meningitis), leading to anemia, hepatic and renal failure, and other organ damage.

Abdominal aortic aneurysm



An abdominal aortic aneurysm is an enlarged area in the lower part of the aorta, the major blood vessel that supplies blood to the body. The aorta, about the thickness of a garden hose, runs from your heart through the center of your chest and abdomen.

Because the aorta is the body's main supplier of blood, a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm can cause life-threatening bleeding.

Depending on the size and the rate at which your abdominal aortic aneurysm is growing, treatment may vary from watchful waiting to emergency surgery.

Once an abdominal aortic aneurysm is found, doctors will closely monitor it so that surgery can be planned if it's necessary. Emergency surgery for a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm can be risky.

The thrombophlebitis



Thrombophlebitis (throm-boe-fluh-BY-tis) occurs when a blood clot blocks one or more of your veins, typically in your legs. Rarely, thrombophlebitis (sometimes called phlebitis) can affect veins in your arms or neck.

The affected vein may be near the surface of your skin, causing superficial thrombophlebitis, or deep within a muscle, causing deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Thrombophlebitis can be caused by trauma, surgery or prolonged inactivity. Superficial thrombophlebitis may occur in people with varicose veins.

A clot in a deep vein increases your risk of serious health problems, including the possibility of a dislodged clot (embolus) traveling to your lungs and blocking an artery there (pulmonary embolism). Deep vein thrombosis is usually treated with blood-thinning medications. Superficial thrombophlebitis is sometimes treated with blood-thinning medications, too.

Aneurysm



Aneurysm - is bulging of wall of the artery (rarely - of the vein) or heart due to its thinning or stretching. As a result develops so-called aneurysmal sac that can compress tissue disposed near. An aneurysm can be congenital. And, when a child birth, this defect is invisible, and the baby develops absolutely normally. To aneurysm also lead diseases, which thinning the blood vessels: hypertension, atherosclerosis, syphilis (late-stage). The risk of this insidious disease increases by trauma or injury of a blood vessel and during the formation of infected blood clots. With it people can live for years, make daily activities and have no symptoms. Meanwhile, the aneurysm will grow unnoticed, threatening at any moment to burst.

Atherosclerosis



Atherosclerosis (Greek athera - gruel and the sclerosis) - is a chronic disease in which the inner wall of the arteries are deposited cholesterol and other fats in the form of plaques and plaque, and walls themselves are compacted and lose their elasticity. This leads to a narrowing of the lumen of the artery, and hence to the difficulty of blood flow. The victims of atherosclerosis usually become persons of middle and old age. However atherosclerotic changes are detected, in some cases in children and even in newborn.