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Anatomy as a science



Name of Science "anatomy" (humans, animals, plants) is derived from the Greek word "anatemno" - cut, dismember, dissect, and its essence is to study the structure organisms and organisms organs by method autopsy of tissues. This science refers to the biological sciences, united under the term "morphology" (from the Greek. Tohriho - form, logos - teaching).

Morphology (a term coined German poet and scientist Goethe in 1817) is not limited to stating the information on the form and structure of the various parts of the body (normal, abnormal, ugly, etc.) obtained at different teaching levels (macroscopic, microscopic, cellular, molecular etc.). It also clarifies the organs evolution and the whole organism under the influence of various factors (functional, climatic -heohrafichnyh etc.). It must be admitted that the priority of anatomy was very large in the historical birth of many morphological sciences. In the late XIX - early XX centuries the morphology developed its section - evolutionary morphology which aims to study organisms and some organs in ontogeny and phylogeny.

Human anatomy as an independent science for a long time (until the XIX century) remained as descriptive in most cases (arose as descriptive anatomy), that it was limited to only describing, naming and classification of organs and systems. In the Renaissance, and all subsequent days up to now world science was enriched by discoveries that explain not only certain phenomena but also reasons of their occurrence and development. In search of truth, scientists were increasingly go beyond the individual sciences. In other words, there was a process of intensive interpenetration of different disciplines.

So, we can say that modern human anatomy - a biological science that studies the form and structure of the human body, caused by function and morphological changes, which occur over time (historical process, individual development), space (in different regions of the world) and under the influence of various factors (klimatoheohrafichnyh, environmental, social, genetic, functional).

One of the central places in the modern anatomy takes clarify of uneven development of the organs in the process of formation and human evolution, and at the same time the historical formation and functional interconnection of the various structures that determine the integrity of the body. Today, medical attention should be directed at clarifying the morphofunctional adaptation of various organs of the human body and in general to the contaminated environment (air, soil, water and especially food) by various chemicals, heavy metals, radionuclides, etc. Dentist should remember that significant deviations of structure of polluting chemical substances from the maximum allowable tend to have a negative impact on the morphofunctional state of the oral cavity: late teething in children or early tooth loss in adults, often due to periodontal disease, often anomaly forms of crowns, pathological bite more. All this is particularly important when the doctor had to operate in an environmentally unfavorable zones. Great value for future dentists is mastering topographical placement organs relatively skeleton or other bodies projection of various anatomical formations (nerve and vascular trunks, place of their exit from bone canal, excretory ducts of the salivary glands, etc.) on the skin of those parts of the body that are learning, as well as the structure slits of neurovascular bundles. This will help in practice, especially during operations.
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