Human anatomy » Skin diseases » Acne
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Acne is a disease of the sebaceous glands, another name for this disease is acne. The disease is characterized by blockage and inflammation of the hair follicles.
Acne consists of elements such as pustular and papular acne, nodules and cystic cavities, and comedones. Acne occurs due to the presence of infections, due to a disorder in the digestive process and mental disorder, as well as due to a violation in the genetic, immune and endocrine apparatus.
Skin rashes with acne are closed and open comedones, papular and pustular acne, and nodular and cystic formations. Closed comedones look like inflammatory nodules, their color is white, they do not come to the surface of the skin, that is, they are located under the skin.
When dust accumulates in the cells of the epithelium, pigment and in the sebaceous gland, then open comedones are already formed. They are black in color, and their upper part protrudes above the patient's skin.
These comedones are found on the skin of the forehead and chin. When a hair follicle joins the blockage, as a result of the inflammatory process occurring there, papulo-pustular acne develops, in more severe cases, cystic cavities, as well as the so-called phlegmonous and necrotic acne elements.
Acne papules are a kind of dense bump above the skin, they are small in size, red-bluish in color. If there are many papules on the skin, then the surface of the skin appears uneven. Papules can return to a state of so-called reverse development, or over time they turn into pustules. Pustular acne looks like blisters that cause pain, and inside this bladder there is pus, such acne heals quickly enough, after which scars remain in their place on the skin. The subsequent development of acne provokes the appearance of nodes and cystic cavities.
The nodes are formed in the skin and subcutaneous fat, the diameter of these nodes is more than 5 mm. In the case of reverse development, the nodes disintegrate by themselves and scars form in their place. Cysts are cavities that contain purulent masses, purple-cyanotic in color, after they heal, a scar remains.
The following factors play an important role in the development of acne: -Excessive increase in the secretion of the sebaceous glands: with hypersecretion of sebum, the bactericidal properties and consistency decrease, as a result, the secretion of the sebaceous glands becomes dense, creates plugs in the ducts and blocks them; -follicular hyperkeratosis: occurs due to a violation of the process of constant renewal of hair follicle cells, prevent the outflow of the secretion of the sebaceous glands; -the multiplication of propionic bacteria acne: hair follicles multiply in the sebaceous horny plugs; -inflammation: the proliferation of propionic bacteria leads to tissue inflammation.
Endogenous causes of acne
Acne appears due to dysfunction of the sebaceous glands (hypersecretion of sebum). There are internal and external reasons for all this:
1) testosterone and acne: in adolescence, hormonal changes in the body and the release of steroid hormones occur, and this is the reason for the change in sebum, sebum from a liquid state turns into a viscous one;
2) premenstrual acne: there is an increase in steroid hormones in women during the final phase of the menstrual cycle, which provokes the appearance of acne;
3) hormonal acne: if acne appears in adulthood, this indicates a violation of the production of genitals;
4) hyperkeratosis: develops due to hormonal levels, vitamin A deficiency, development of the microbial process;
5) diseases of the gastrointestinal tract;
6) individual microflora of the skin: problems in the body (such as acne, acne, hyperandrogenism) result in the multiplication of various bacteria, and as a result, epidermal staphylococci, fungi and mites arise;
8) violation of the immune system: these disorders appear due to diseases of the digestive system, as well as due to stress.
Exogenous causes of acne:
1) cosmetics (causes acne);
2) heat and humid climate (a rash appears in the neck, chest and back);
3) the sun and ultraviolet light (there is an increase in the secretion of sebum and the stratum corneum of the skin is dried up, which is the cause of acne exacerbation);
4) professional contact with toxic substances (acne worsens due to the development of hyperkeratosis of the skin and hair follicles);
5) squeezing acne (when squeezing acne, microbes enter the skin, which infect the deep layers of the skin and cause suppuration); 6) constant friction and pressure on the skin (while wearing tight collars, hats);
7) medical acne (taking steroid drugs causes acne);
8) excessive cleanliness (frequent washing leads to dry skin and exacerbates acne).
Stages of acne development
The development of acne contributes to a violation of the sebaceous glands. This is the reason for the appearance of sebaceous horny plugs in the ducts of the sebaceous glands. Surface breakdown k (comedones) is a breeding ground for pathogenic bacteria, and also cause inflammation of adjacent skin tissues.
According to the severity of the course, acne is conventionally divided into 4 stages:
1st stage - mild form: closed and open comedones are formed on the skin without inflammation, at this stage the treatment is simple;
Stage 2 is a moderate manifestation of acne: the skin is covered with an abundant amount of closed and open comedones, acne and the initial process of inflammation are also visible on the skin, the treatment takes about 6-8 weeks;
3rd stage - severe form of acne: the skin is already affected by a large number of inflamed comedones, treatment consists of special therapy;
Stage 4 is an extremely severe form of acne manifestation: many papules and nodes form on the skin, in this case a serious course of treatment is prescribed.
Treatment of this disease includes preventing the appearance of new comedones (that is, caring for the affected skin), removing existing comedones, reducing the secretion of sebum, destroying the inflammatory process and eliminating the possibility of its spread. In general, a full course of acne treatment is 6-8 months.