Adenomyosis is a gynecological disease in which the mucous membrane of the uterine cavity - the endometrium - germinates the dividing tissue that lies between the endometrium itself and the uterine muscle and starts to enter into the muscular tissue of the uterus.

Usually the endometrium grows during the menstrual cycle, preparing to receive a fertilized egg. Normally, the endometrium can grow only inward - towards the uterine cavity, because it is separated from the muscular layer of the uterus by a thin layer of separating tissue. However, with adenomyosis, a failure occurs, and the endometrium in some places grows into the uterine wall.

In response to the appearance of endometrial tissue in the wrong place, the uterus begins to respond to the invasion - to defend itself. It thickens around the focus of the endometrium, trying to limit the area of intrusion and stop the spread of this pathological process. The muscle increases in size - therefore the uterus also increases in size and acquires a spherical shape.

Bartholin's cyst

The Bartholin's glands are located on each side of the vaginal opening. These glands secrete fluid that helps lubricate the vagina.

Sometimes the openings of these glands become obstructed, causing fluid to back up into the gland. The result is relatively painless swelling called a Bartholin's cyst. If the fluid within the cyst becomes infected, you may develop a collection of pus surrounded by inflamed tissue (abscess).

A Bartholin's cyst or abscess is common. Treatment of a Bartholin's cyst depends on the size of the cyst, how painful the cyst is and whether the cyst is infected.

Sometimes home treatment is all you need. In other cases, surgical drainage of the Bartholin's cyst is necessary. If an infection occurs, antibiotics may be helpful to treat the infected Bartholin's cyst.