Anatomy as a science

Name of Science "anatomy" (humans, animals, plants) is derived from the Greek word "anatemno" - cut, dismember, dissect, and its essence is to study the structure organisms and organisms organs by method autopsy of tissues. This science refers to the biological sciences, united under the term "morphology" (from the Greek. Tohriho - form, logos - teaching).

Morphology (a term coined German poet and scientist Goethe in 1817) is not limited to stating the information on the form and structure of the various parts of the body (normal, abnormal, ugly, etc.) obtained at different teaching levels (macroscopic, microscopic, cellular, molecular etc.). It also clarifies the organs evolution and the whole organism under the influence of various factors (functional, climatic -heohrafichnyh etc.). It must be admitted that the priority of anatomy was very large in the historical birth of many morphological sciences. In the late XIX - early XX centuries the morphology developed its section - evolutionary morphology which aims to study organisms and some organs in ontogeny and phylogeny.

Human anatomy as an independent science for a long time (until the XIX century) remained as descriptive in most cases (arose as descriptive anatomy), that it was limited to only describing, naming and classification of organs and systems. In the Renaissance, and all subsequent days up to now world science was enriched by discoveries that explain not only certain phenomena but also reasons of their occurrence and development. In search of truth, scientists were increasingly go beyond the individual sciences. In other words, there was a process of intensive interpenetration of different disciplines.

The Gastritis

The Gastritis

Gastritis describes a group of conditions with one thing in common: inflammation of the lining of the stomach. The inflammation of gastritis is most often the result of infection with the same bacterium that causes most stomach ulcers. Injury, regular use of certain pain relievers and drinking too much alcohol also can contribute to gastritis.

Gastritis may occur suddenly (acute gastritis), or it can occur slowly over time (chronic gastritis). In some cases, gastritis can lead to ulcers and an increased risk of stomach cancer. For most people, however, gastritis isn't serious and improves quickly with treatment.

The Angina

The Angina

Angina is a term used for chest pain caused by reduced blood flow to the heart muscle. Angina is a symptom of coronary artery disease. Angina is typically described as squeezing, pressure, heaviness, tightness or pain in your chest.

Angina, also called angina pectoris, can be a recurring problem or a sudden, acute health concern.

Angina is relatively common but can be hard to distinguish from other types of chest pain, such as the pain or discomfort of indigestion. If you have unexplained chest pain, seek medical attention right away.

The Adenoids

Adenoids and tonsils are often talked about together. You can see your tonsils in the back of your throat, but where are your adenoids? For that matter, what are your adenoids? Let's find out.

The Vestibular Disorders

The vestibular system includes the parts of the inner ear and brain that process the sensory information involved with controlling balance and eye movements. If disease or injury damages these processing areas, vestibular disorders can result. Vestibular disorders can also result from or be worsened by genetic or environmental conditions, or occur for unknown reasons.

The Sore Throat

Why Is Your Throat Sore?

The average person swallows about 50 times per minute. How do you measure up? It’s okay if you have no idea, because most guys don’t gauge their gulps.

Unless you have a sore throat, that is. If so, you’re painfully aware of each and every time you need to push something down your thick, burning throat, even if it’s just something as simple as your own spit.

Throat symptoms are one of the most common reasons people go see their doctor, ranking above high blood pressure, back problems, and rashes, according to the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey.

The sinusitis

Sinusitis is an inflammation, or swelling, of the tissue lining the sinuses. Normally, sinuses are filled with air. But when they become blocked and filled with fluid, germs (bacteria, viruses, and fungi) can grow and cause an infection.

Conditions that can cause sinus blockage include the common cold, allergic rhinitis (swelling of the lining of the nose), nasal polyps (small growths in that lining), or a deviated septum (a shift in the nasal cavity).

The otitis

Otitis media (OM) is any inflammation of the middle ear (see the images below), without reference to etiology or pathogenesis. It is very common in children.

The head cold

The head cold

A head cold is basically the common cold. It gets its name because the symptoms tend to be centred around the head and facial region more than a usual cold would. Head colds generally last between a week and ten days, and often the symptoms are manageable without medical attention.

Hearing impairment

Hearing impairment

Hearing loss is considered to be the most prevalent congenital abnormality in newborns and is more than twice as prevalent as other conditions that are screened for at birth, such as sickle cell disease, hypothyroidism, phynilketonuria, and galactosaemia (Finitzo & Crumley, 1999). It is one of the most common sensory disorders and is the consequence of sensorineural and/or conductive malfunctions of the ear. The impairment may occur during or shortly after birth (congenital or early onset or may be late onset) caused post natal by genetically factors, trauma or disease. Hearing loss may be pre-lingual (i.e., occurring prior to speech and language acquisition) or post-lingual (i.e., occurring after the acquisition of speech and language).

Since hearing loss in infants is silent and hidden, great emphasis is placed on the importance of early detection, reliable diagnosis, and timely intervention (Spivak et al., 2000). Even children who have mild or unilateral permanent hearing loss may experience difficulties with speech understanding, especially in a noisy environment, as well as problems with educational and psycho-social development (Bess et al., 1988; Culbertson & Gilbert 1996). Children with hearing loss frequently experience speech-language deficits and exhibit lower academic achievement and poorer social-emotional development than their peers with normal hearing.