Anatomy as a science



Name of Science "anatomy" (humans, animals, plants) is derived from the Greek word "anatemno" - cut, dismember, dissect, and its essence is to study the structure organisms and organisms organs by method autopsy of tissues. This science refers to the biological sciences, united under the term "morphology" (from the Greek. Tohriho - form, logos - teaching).

Morphology (a term coined German poet and scientist Goethe in 1817) is not limited to stating the information on the form and structure of the various parts of the body (normal, abnormal, ugly, etc.) obtained at different teaching levels (macroscopic, microscopic, cellular, molecular etc.). It also clarifies the organs evolution and the whole organism under the influence of various factors (functional, climatic -heohrafichnyh etc.). It must be admitted that the priority of anatomy was very large in the historical birth of many morphological sciences. In the late XIX - early XX centuries the morphology developed its section - evolutionary morphology which aims to study organisms and some organs in ontogeny and phylogeny.

Human anatomy as an independent science for a long time (until the XIX century) remained as descriptive in most cases (arose as descriptive anatomy), that it was limited to only describing, naming and classification of organs and systems. In the Renaissance, and all subsequent days up to now world science was enriched by discoveries that explain not only certain phenomena but also reasons of their occurrence and development. In search of truth, scientists were increasingly go beyond the individual sciences. In other words, there was a process of intensive interpenetration of different disciplines.

Agoraphobia



Agoraphobia is a fear and avoidance of crowded places, a fear to leave the house. It's hard to believe, but many live with this disorder, facing their fears on a daily basis, however.

Age spots (liver spots)

Age spots (liver spots)


Everyone knows about the spots that appear on the skin of the elderly. For us it is associated with old age. And as you do not want to grow old. This is particularly frightening for women, although for men the appearance of such spots also does not cause joy. This, so-called senile blemishes or, using medical terminology - senile lentigo. For the body, senile spots on the skin carry no danger. Much greater moral damage from them. After all, the appearance of these pigmented spots we associate with old age. Although this is not always the case.

Adult Still's disease

Adult Still's disease


Still's disease is a serious disease, manifested by fever, polyarthritis. It is manifested by rashes on the skin and a systemic inflammatory lesion of somatic organs. Still's disease is diagnosed using a method of excluding other diseases based on clinical symptoms, laboratory data, the results of the study of affected joints, lymphoreticular and cardiopulmonary system. The treatment of the Still's disease is carried out mainly with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and glucocorticoid drugs, cytostatics are the reserve drugs.

Still's disease was described as early as 1897 by the British doctor George Still. For a long time, it was considered a severe form of juvenile form of rheumatoid arthritis. Only in 1971, Eric Bywaters, published numerous observations of this disease in adult patients. According to statistics, which leads modern rheumatology, the prevalence of the disease Still in recent years is about 1 person per 100 thousand of the population. Women and men are equally susceptible to morbidity. The greatest number of cases of Still's disease occurs in children under the age of 16 years.

Adult attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Adult attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)


Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a condition that causes hyperactivity, impulsivity and stable inattention. This syndrome manifests itself in childhood and can maintain its influence in adulthood.

In children, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is one of the most common mental abnormalities. They suffer up to 5% of children, and boys are 3 times more likely than girls. It turns out that in almost every class there is one child who needs treatment for this disease.
Children with ADHD often have problems at home and at school. If you do not treat ADHD, then in the future this disease will interfere not only with learning and work, but also disrupt social and emotional development, increase the propensity to use drugs and the risk of various injuries.

ADHD is a family illness. Every child suffering from this disease has at least one relative with the same problem. One of the proofs of the genetic nature of this disease is that the presence of the disease in one of the twins testifies to the presence of it in the second twin.

To say that today the number of children with ADHD has increased, it is impossible. However, such a diagnosis occurs more often, as the information on this disease is developed very well, and it became easier for parents and teachers to identify ADHD.

Adrenal cancer


Tumors of the adrenal gland have recently been encountered more often - due to the wide availability of ultrasound and computer tomography, tumor formation of the adrenal gland is detected in 2-3% of the subjects. There is evidence that a tumor of the adrenal gland can be found by careful examination of 5% of the inhabitants of our planet.

Currently, the situation with the diagnosis and treatment of adrenal tumors resembles the situation with the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid nodules, which was created about 10-15 years ago. At the end of the 20th century, following the widespread use of ultrasound of the thyroid gland, thyroid nodules began to appear in 20-30% of the inhabitants of the Earth, following the number of operations on the thyroid gland it began to grow simply in geometric progression. In some medical centers, there is an almost 10-fold increase in the number of operations on the thyroid gland! Only in regard to all thyroid nodules, only 5% are malignant, and all the rest are completely harmless benign Educations, never "degenerating" into cancer. Currently, the leading specialized centers, and with benign nodes that reduce the patient's quality of life - i.e. They work strictly according to the indications, avoiding operations on all other nodes.

The situation with tumors of the adrenal glands is similar in many respects to the situation with thyroid nodules, only for the adrenal glands the "computer" and magnetic resonance imaging were the "catalyst" for the increase in the number of operations. These studies appeared later than ultrasound, and they are less frequent, so the "wave" of surgery on the adrenal gland also appeared later.

Often, when CT or MRI of the abdominal cavity doctors diagnose radiation accidentally notice the tumor of the adrenal gland. For such randomly detected tumors even came up with a special name - "insidentaloma" (from random - random). It is important to understand that an accidentally detected tumor of the adrenal gland is by no means an occasion for an obligatory operation. A thorough examination is required, in which the diagnosis will be clarified, and there will also be indications for the operation (or it becomes clear that there is no indication for the operation).

Adrenoleukodystrophy


Adrenoleukodystrophy is a genetically conditioned, hereditary degenerative disease of the brain, associated with an insufficient function of the adrenal glands.

Adenomyosis

Adenomyosis

Adenomyosis is a gynecological disease in which the mucous membrane of the uterine cavity - the endometrium - germinates the dividing tissue that lies between the endometrium itself and the uterine muscle and starts to enter into the muscular tissue of the uterus.

Usually the endometrium grows during the menstrual cycle, preparing to receive a fertilized egg. Normally, the endometrium can grow only inward - towards the uterine cavity, because it is separated from the muscular layer of the uterus by a thin layer of separating tissue. However, with adenomyosis, a failure occurs, and the endometrium in some places grows into the uterine wall.

In response to the appearance of endometrial tissue in the wrong place, the uterus begins to respond to the invasion - to defend itself. It thickens around the focus of the endometrium, trying to limit the area of intrusion and stop the spread of this pathological process. The muscle increases in size - therefore the uterus also increases in size and acquires a spherical shape.

Addison's disease



Addison's disease is considered a fairly rare disease of the endocrine system, which accompanies the chronic insufficiency of the adrenal cortex as a result of its one-sided and bilateral lesions.

The essence of Addison's disease is an autoimmune process, that is, the body is attacked by its own immune cells, destroying once-established immunity and not only. However, other pathogenic factors also stand out:
- Tuberculosis of the adrenal glands;
- Syphilis;
- Extensive fungal lesions;
- Bleeding in the adrenal glands;
- AIDS;
- Adrenoleukodystrophy;
- Removal of the adrenal glands;
- Sarcoidosis;
- Long-term drug therapy of individual pharmacological groups.

Acute sinusitis

Acute sinusitis


Acute sinusitis is a common name for a group of inflammations of the paranasal sinus (maxillary, wedge, frontal and latticed maze). The airborne sinuses communicating with the nasal cavity perform the following physiological functions:
- Thermo-regulating (equalization of the temperature of the inhaled air and protection from temperature changes in the roots of the teeth and eyeballs);
- Buffer (softening and damping of blows in trauma of the bones of the facial skull);
- Warming and moisturizing (heating the air of body temperature).
Acute sinusitis is a disease that, in the absence of adequate treatment, can lead to the development of severe complications.