Anatomy as a science



Name of Science "anatomy" (humans, animals, plants) is derived from the Greek word "anatemno" - cut, dismember, dissect, and its essence is to study the structure organisms and organisms organs by method autopsy of tissues. This science refers to the biological sciences, united under the term "morphology" (from the Greek. Tohriho - form, logos - teaching).

Morphology (a term coined German poet and scientist Goethe in 1817) is not limited to stating the information on the form and structure of the various parts of the body (normal, abnormal, ugly, etc.) obtained at different teaching levels (macroscopic, microscopic, cellular, molecular etc.). It also clarifies the organs evolution and the whole organism under the influence of various factors (functional, climatic -heohrafichnyh etc.). It must be admitted that the priority of anatomy was very large in the historical birth of many morphological sciences. In the late XIX - early XX centuries the morphology developed its section - evolutionary morphology which aims to study organisms and some organs in ontogeny and phylogeny.

Human anatomy as an independent science for a long time (until the XIX century) remained as descriptive in most cases (arose as descriptive anatomy), that it was limited to only describing, naming and classification of organs and systems. In the Renaissance, and all subsequent days up to now world science was enriched by discoveries that explain not only certain phenomena but also reasons of their occurrence and development. In search of truth, scientists were increasingly go beyond the individual sciences. In other words, there was a process of intensive interpenetration of different disciplines.

Acromegaly



Acromegaly is a hormonal disorder that develops when your pituitary gland produces too much growth hormone during adulthood. When this happens, your bones increase in size, including those of your hands, feet and face. Acromegaly usually affects middle-aged adults.

In children who are still growing, too much growth hormone can cause a condition called gigantism. These children have exaggerated bone growth and an abnormal increase in height.

Because acromegaly is uncommon and physical changes occur gradually, the condition often isn't recognized immediately: sometimes not for years. If not treated promptly, acromegaly can lead to serious illness and even become life-threatening. However, available treatments for acromegaly can reduce your risk of complications and significantly improve your symptoms, including the enlargement of your features.

HIV | AIDS | Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome



Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a chronic, potentially life-threatening condition caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). By damaging your immune system, HIV interferes with your body's ability to fight the organisms that cause disease.

HIV is a sexually transmitted infection. It can also be spread by contact with infected blood or from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth or breast-feeding. Without medication, it may take years before HIV weakens your immune system to the point that you have AIDS.

There's no cure for HIV/AIDS, but there are medications that can dramatically slow the progression of the disease. These drugs have reduced AIDS deaths in many developed nations. But HIV continues to decimate populations in Africa, Haiti and parts of Asia.

The symptoms of HIV and AIDS vary, depending on the phase of infection.

Acoustic neuroma



Acoustic neuroma is an uncommon, noncancerous (benign) and usually slow-growing tumor that develops on the main nerve leading from your inner ear to your brain. Because branches of this nerve directly influence your balance and hearing, pressure from an acoustic neuroma can cause hearing loss, ringing in your ear and unsteadiness.

Also known as vestibular schwannoma, acoustic neuroma usually grows slowly or not at all. However, in a few cases, it may grow rapidly and become large enough to press against the brain and interfere with vital functions.

Treatments for acoustic neuroma include regular monitoring, radiation and surgical removal.

Acne



Acne is a skin condition that occurs when your hair follicles become plugged with oil and dead skin cells. Acne usually appears on your face, neck, chest, back and shoulders. Effective treatments are available, but acne can be persistent. The pimples and bumps heal slowly, and when one begins to go away, others seem to crop up.

Acne is most common among teenagers, with a reported prevalence of 70 to 87 percent. Increasingly, younger children are getting acne as well.

Depending on its severity, acne can cause emotional distress and scar the skin. The earlier you start treatment, the lower your risk of lasting physical and emotional damage.

ACL injury | Tearing of the anterior cruciate ligament



An ACL injury is the tearing of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) — one of the major ligaments in your knee. ACL injuries most commonly occur during sports that involve sudden stops, jumping or changes in direction — such as basketball, soccer, football, tennis, downhill skiing, volleyball and gymnastics.

Many people hear or feel a "pop" in the knee when an ACL injury occurs. Your knee may swell, feel unstable and become too painful to bear weight.

Depending on the severity of your ACL injury, treatment may include rest and rehabilitation exercises to help you regain strength and stability or surgery to replace the torn ligament followed by rehabilitation. A proper training program may help reduce the risk of an ACL injury.

Infant reflux



Infant reflux occurs when food backs up (refluxes) from a baby's stomach, causing the baby to spit up. Sometimes called gastroesophageal reflux (GER), the condition is rarely serious and becomes less common as a baby gets older. It's unusual for infant reflux to continue after age 18 months.

Reflux occurs in healthy infants multiple times a day. As long as your baby is healthy, content and growing well, the reflux is not a cause for concern.

Rarely, infant reflux can be a sign of a medical problem, such as an allergy, a blockage in the digestive system or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

GERD - Gastroesophageal reflux disease (Acid reflux)



Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a chronic digestive disease. GERD occurs when stomach acid or, occasionally, stomach content, flows back into your food pipe (esophagus). The backwash (reflux) irritates the lining of your esophagus and causes GERD.

Both acid reflux and heartburn are common digestive conditions that many people experience from time to time. When these signs and symptoms occur at least twice each week or interfere with your daily life, or when your doctor can see damage to your esophagus, you may be diagnosed with GERD.

Most people can manage the discomfort of GERD with lifestyle changes and over-the-counter medications. But some people with GERD may need stronger medications, or even surgery, to reduce symptoms.

Achilles tendon rupture



Achilles tendon rupture is an injury that affects the back of your lower leg. It most commonly occurs in people playing recreational sports.

The Achilles tendon is a strong fibrous cord that connects the muscles in the back of your calf to your heel bone. If you overstretch your Achilles tendon, it can tear (rupture) completely or just partially.

If your Achilles tendon ruptures, you might feel a pop or snap, followed by an immediate sharp pain in the back of your ankle and lower leg that is likely to affect your ability to walk properly. Surgery is often the best option to repair an Achilles tendon rupture. For many people, however, nonsurgical treatment works just as well.

Achilles tendinitis

Achilles tendinitis


Achilles tendinitis is an overuse injury of the Achilles tendon, the band of tissue that connects calf muscles at the back of the lower leg to your heel bone.

Achilles tendinitis most commonly occurs in runners who have suddenly increased the intensity or duration of their runs. It's also common in middle-aged people who play sports, such as tennis or basketball, only on the weekends.

Most cases of Achilles tendinitis can be treated with relatively simple, at-home care under your doctor's supervision. Self-care strategies are usually necessary to prevent recurring episodes. More-serious cases of Achilles tendinitis can lead to tendon tears (ruptures) that may require surgical repair.