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Adult attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Adult attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a condition that causes hyperactivity, impulsivity and stable inattention. This syndrome manifests itself in childhood and can maintain its influence in adulthood.

In children, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is one of the most common mental abnormalities. They suffer up to 5% of children, and boys are 3 times more likely than girls. It turns out that in almost every class there is one child who needs treatment for this disease.
Children with ADHD often have problems at home and at school. If you do not treat ADHD, then in the future this disease will interfere not only with learning and work, but also disrupt social and emotional development, increase the propensity to use drugs and the risk of various injuries.

ADHD is a family illness. Every child suffering from this disease has at least one relative with the same problem. One of the proofs of the genetic nature of this disease is that the presence of the disease in one of the twins testifies to the presence of it in the second twin.

To say that today the number of children with ADHD has increased, it is impossible. However, such a diagnosis occurs more often, as the information on this disease is developed very well, and it became easier for parents and teachers to identify ADHD.

Adrenal cancer

Tumors of the adrenal gland have recently been encountered more often - due to the wide availability of ultrasound and computer tomography, tumor formation of the adrenal gland is detected in 2-3% of the subjects. There is evidence that a tumor of the adrenal gland can be found by careful examination of 5% of the inhabitants of our planet.

Currently, the situation with the diagnosis and treatment of adrenal tumors resembles the situation with the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid nodules, which was created about 10-15 years ago. At the end of the 20th century, following the widespread use of ultrasound of the thyroid gland, thyroid nodules began to appear in 20-30% of the inhabitants of the Earth, following the number of operations on the thyroid gland it began to grow simply in geometric progression. In some medical centers, there is an almost 10-fold increase in the number of operations on the thyroid gland! Only in regard to all thyroid nodules, only 5% are malignant, and all the rest are completely harmless benign Educations, never "degenerating" into cancer. Currently, the leading specialized centers, and with benign nodes that reduce the patient's quality of life - i.e. They work strictly according to the indications, avoiding operations on all other nodes.

The situation with tumors of the adrenal glands is similar in many respects to the situation with thyroid nodules, only for the adrenal glands the "computer" and magnetic resonance imaging were the "catalyst" for the increase in the number of operations. These studies appeared later than ultrasound, and they are less frequent, so the "wave" of surgery on the adrenal gland also appeared later.

Often, when CT or MRI of the abdominal cavity doctors diagnose radiation accidentally notice the tumor of the adrenal gland. For such randomly detected tumors even came up with a special name - "insidentaloma" (from random - random). It is important to understand that an accidentally detected tumor of the adrenal gland is by no means an occasion for an obligatory operation. A thorough examination is required, in which the diagnosis will be clarified, and there will also be indications for the operation (or it becomes clear that there is no indication for the operation).


Adrenoleukodystrophy is a genetically conditioned, hereditary degenerative disease of the brain, associated with an insufficient function of the adrenal glands.



Adenomyosis is a gynecological disease in which the mucous membrane of the uterine cavity - the endometrium - germinates the dividing tissue that lies between the endometrium itself and the uterine muscle and starts to enter into the muscular tissue of the uterus.

Usually the endometrium grows during the menstrual cycle, preparing to receive a fertilized egg. Normally, the endometrium can grow only inward - towards the uterine cavity, because it is separated from the muscular layer of the uterus by a thin layer of separating tissue. However, with adenomyosis, a failure occurs, and the endometrium in some places grows into the uterine wall.

In response to the appearance of endometrial tissue in the wrong place, the uterus begins to respond to the invasion - to defend itself. It thickens around the focus of the endometrium, trying to limit the area of intrusion and stop the spread of this pathological process. The muscle increases in size - therefore the uterus also increases in size and acquires a spherical shape.

Addison's disease

Addison's disease is considered a fairly rare disease of the endocrine system, which accompanies the chronic insufficiency of the adrenal cortex as a result of its one-sided and bilateral lesions.

The essence of Addison's disease is an autoimmune process, that is, the body is attacked by its own immune cells, destroying once-established immunity and not only. However, other pathogenic factors also stand out:
- Tuberculosis of the adrenal glands;
- Syphilis;
- Extensive fungal lesions;
- Bleeding in the adrenal glands;
- Adrenoleukodystrophy;
- Removal of the adrenal glands;
- Sarcoidosis;
- Long-term drug therapy of individual pharmacological groups.

Acute sinusitis

Acute sinusitis

Acute sinusitis is a common name for a group of inflammations of the paranasal sinus (maxillary, wedge, frontal and latticed maze). The airborne sinuses communicating with the nasal cavity perform the following physiological functions:
- Thermo-regulating (equalization of the temperature of the inhaled air and protection from temperature changes in the roots of the teeth and eyeballs);
- Buffer (softening and damping of blows in trauma of the bones of the facial skull);
- Warming and moisturizing (heating the air of body temperature).
Acute sinusitis is a disease that, in the absence of adequate treatment, can lead to the development of severe complications.

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML)

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an oncological disease in which the spinal cord produces abnormal myeloblastic cells (the type of leukocyte cells), erythrocytes or platelets.

Acute myeloid leukemia occurs in people of all ages, but mostly in adults. The likelihood of developing acute myeloid leukemia increases in the event of exposure to large doses of radiation and the use of certain chemotherapy agents for a malignant tumor.

Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)

Acute lymphocytic (lymphoblastic) leukemia is a life-threatening disease in which cells normally developing in lymphocytes become malignant and quickly replace normal cells in the bone marrow.

Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) occurs in patients of any age, but it is the most common type of children’s oncological disease and accounts for 25% of all cases of under 15 years old children’s cancer. ALL is the most commonly affected by young children (2 to 5 years). Among middle-aged people, this disease occurs a little more frequently than in patients older than 45 years.

With ALL, very immature leukemic cells accumulate in the bone marrow, destroying and replacing cells that produce normal blood cells. Leukemia cells are transported with blood to a liver, spleen, lymph nodes, brain and testes, where they can continue growing and divide. In this case, ALL cells can accumulate in any part of a body. They can affect the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, causing inflammation (meningitis), leading to anemia, hepatic and renal failure, and other organ damage.

Acute liver failure

Acute liver failure is a pathological condition with massive damage to liver cells and a violation of their functions. In severe form of the disease may occur a hepatic coma.

Acute kidney failure

Acute kidney failure is a syndrome of sudden, rapid reduction or termination of the function of both kidneys (or a single kidney), resulting in accumulation of waste protein metabolism in the body.