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The integumentary system of the leg and foot



The integumentary system of the lower extremities includes the skin, hair and nails of the legs, feet, and toes. The skin of this system is the first barrier against damage to the muscles of the legs, feet, and toes. Both men and women have hair on their legs and the tops of their feet, but this hair is somewhat thicker and coarser in men than in women. The toenails protect the toes from injury; they also enhance the sensitivity of the tips of the toes, although the nails themselves have no nerve endings.

The integumentary system of the arm and hand



The integumentary system of the upper extremities (including the shoulders, arms, hands and fingers) includes the skin and hair, and nails of the upper extremities. The skin of the hands and arms (especially the hands) is more frequently exposed to sunlight and to environmental toxins than other parts of the body. Therefore, the hands are likely to show evidence of accumulated damage from these influences as a person ages.

The integumentary system of the lower torso



The integumentary system of the lower abdomen and pelvis includes the skin and hair of this region. The skin of this system protects against damage to the organs contained within the abdomen. Additionally, the skin over the genitals is the first line of defense against sexually transmitted diseases and other diseases that affect these reproductive organs. Both men and women have hair on the lower abdomen that extends from the lower edge of the chest to the pubis. Hair in the genital region is known as pubic hair.

The integumentary system of the upper torso



The integumentary system of the upper torso is made up of the skin and its appendages (such as the hair); its primary function is to protect the body from damage; it is also involved in temperature regulation and in the sense of touch. Upon exposure to sunlight, the integumentary system is also the primary vehicle for synthesis of vitamin D.

The integumentary system of the head and neck



The integumentary system of the head and neck includes the skin and hair of the face, head and neck. The skin of the face is the part of the body which is most often exposed to sunlight, the elements, and environmental pollutants; thus, it is more prone to acne and to becoming dry or otherwise showing accumulated damage from these influences than the skin on the rest of the body.

The epididymis

The epididymis


The epididymis (plural, epididymides) is a tightly coiled mass of thin tubes that carries sperm from the testes to the ductus deferens in the male reproductive system. Sperm matures as it passes through the epididymis so that it is ready to fertilize ova by the time it enters the ductus deferens.

The epididymis is a crescent-shaped coil of thin tubules located inside the scrotum and posterior to the testis. The entire mass of the epididymis is actually a single, 20-foot-long (six-meter) tubule that has been coiled upon itself so tightly that the entire mass of the epididymis is only around 1.5 inches (4 cm) long. Starting at the efferent tubules of the testis, the tubule of the epididymis winds over the top of the testis and then down the posterior side. Then, near the bottom of the testis, it turns 180 degrees and continues superiorly before joining the ductus deferens.

The ductus deferens



The ductus deferens, also known as the vas deferens, is a tiny muscular tube in the male reproductive system that carries sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct. There is a pair of these ducts in the male body, with one duct carrying sperm from each testis to the left and right ejaculatory ducts. Along the way they pass through the scrotum, spermatic cord, inguinal canal, and pelvic body cavity. The location and function of the ductus deferens makes it a prime area for male contraception surgery.

The Cowper’s glands

The Cowper’s glands


The Cowper’s glands (or bulbourethral glands) are a pair of exocrine glands in the male reproductive system. Roughly the size of peas, they are located inferior to the prostate gland and lateral to the urethra in the urogenital diaphragm. The Cowper’s glands are only found in the male body and play an important role in the protection of sperm during ejaculation.

Aneurysm



Aneurysm - is bulging of wall of the artery (rarely - of the vein) or heart due to its thinning or stretching. As a result develops so-called aneurysmal sac that can compress tissue disposed near. An aneurysm can be congenital. And, when a child birth, this defect is invisible, and the baby develops absolutely normally. To aneurysm also lead diseases, which thinning the blood vessels: hypertension, atherosclerosis, syphilis (late-stage). The risk of this insidious disease increases by trauma or injury of a blood vessel and during the formation of infected blood clots. With it people can live for years, make daily activities and have no symptoms. Meanwhile, the aneurysm will grow unnoticed, threatening at any moment to burst.

Atherosclerosis



Atherosclerosis (Greek athera - gruel and the sclerosis) - is a chronic disease in which the inner wall of the arteries are deposited cholesterol and other fats in the form of plaques and plaque, and walls themselves are compacted and lose their elasticity. This leads to a narrowing of the lumen of the artery, and hence to the difficulty of blood flow. The victims of atherosclerosis usually become persons of middle and old age. However atherosclerotic changes are detected, in some cases in children and even in newborn.